Configuring YAF with super_mediator and Analysis Pipeline

This tutorial is a step-by-step guide of setting up yaf, super_mediator, and Analysis Pipeline.

Overview

This tutorial explains the basics of setting up yaf to super_mediator to pipeline. It will also provide the configuration to implement DNS Baselining, an idea presented at the 2017 FloCon. The slides for the presentation, titled "Low Hanging Fruit Tastes Just As Good", can be found on the FloCon web page.

The idea behind DNS Baselining is if we create a list of all the domains seen on the network for some period of time, and if we're not already infected, malicious domains will be new at some point. Many attacks use recently registered domain names and the change in domain resolutions can be potentially interesting.

yaf will be used to collect the DNS domain names. super_mediator will be used to de-duplicate the DNS domains and pipeline will be used to create the "whitelist" of DNS domains and then, after some period of time, will be used to alert when new domains are seen.

Install prerequisites

$ yum groupinstall "Development Tools" $ yum install libpcap-devel pcre-devel

Build libfixbuf:

$ tar -xvzf libfixbuf-1.7.1.tar.gz
$ cd libfixbuf-1.7.1
$ ./configure
$ make
$ make install

Build yaf:

$ tar -xvzf yaf-2.8.4.tar.gz
$ cd yaf-2.8.4
$ ./configure --enable-applabel --enable-plugins
$ make
$ make install

Build super_mediator:

$ tar -xvzf super_mediator-1.5.0.tar.gz
$ cd super_mediator-1.5.0
$ ./configure
$ make
$ make install

Build libschemaTools:

$ tar -xvzf libschemaTools-1.2.1.tar.gz
$ cd libschemaTools
$ export PKG_CONFIG_PATH=/usr/local/lib/pkgconfig
$ ./configure
$ make
$ make install

Build SiLK:

$ tar -xvzf silk-3.14.0.tar.gz
$ cd silk-3.14.0
$ ./configure --with-libfixbuf=/usr/local/lib/pkgconfig --enable-ipv6
$ make
$ make install

Build pipeline

$ tar -xvzf analysis-pipeline-5.6.tar.gz
$ cd analysis-pipeline-5.6
$ export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/lib
$ ./configure --with-libsnarf=no --with-silk-config=/usr/local/bin/silk-config
$ make
$ make install

Using super_mediator

Create the file directories that super_mediator will use to write files that pipeline will process:

$ mkdir -p /data/pipeline/incoming/

Create your super_mediator.conf file. One is installed by default into /usr/local/etc. The following one will get you started:

COLLECTOR TCP "yaf"
   PORT 18000
COLLECTOR END

#dedup process
EXPORTER FILEHANDLER "dnsdedup"
   PATH "/data/pipeline/incoming/dns"
   REMOVE_EMPTY_FILES
   ROTATE 120
   DNS_DEDUP_ONLY
   LOCK
EXPORTER END

DNS_DEDUP "dnsdedup"
   RECORDS [1]
   MAX_HIT_COUNT 10000
   FLUSH_TIME 600
DNS_DEDUP END

LOGLEVEL DEBUG

LOG "/var/log/super_mediator.log"

PIDFILE "/data/super_mediator.pid"

Start super_mediator:

$ super_mediator -c /usr/local/etc/super_mediator.conf --daemonize

Confirm super_mediator is running:

$ ps -ef | grep super

If super_mediator is not running, check for any errors:

$ cat /var/log/super_mediator.log

Configure Analysis Pipeline

The first step is to build the whitelist of domain names, domain/IP pairs, unique second-level domains (SLDs) and unique SLDs + top-level domains (TLDs). The following pipeline configuration creates those 4 whitelists.

FILTER all
END FILTER

INTERNAL FILTER listBuilder
        FILTER all
        dnsQName sourceIPv4Address domainIPPairs 60 DAYS
        dnsQName domainList 60 DAYS
        DNS_SLD(dnsQName) slds 60 DAYS
        DNS_SLD+TLD(dnsQName) sldPlusTld 60 DAYS
END INTERNAL FILTER

LIST CONFIGURATION domainIPPairs
        UPDATE 5 MINUTES
        WRITE FILE WITHOUT ALERTING
        OUTPUT FILE "/data/pipeline/domainIPPairs.txt"
END LIST CONFIGURATION

LIST CONFIGURATION domainList
        UPDATE 5 MINUTES
        WRITE FILE WITHOUT ALERTING
        OUTPUT FILE "/data/pipeline/domainList.txt"
END LIST CONFIGURATION

LIST CONFIGURATION slds
        UPDATE 5 MINUTES
        WRITE FILE WITHOUT ALERTING
        OUTPUT FILE "/data/pipeline/slds.txt"
END LIST CONFIGURATION

LIST CONFIGURATION sldPlusTld
        UPDATE 5 MINUTES
        WRITE FILE WITHOUT ALERTING
        OUTPUT FILE "/data/pipeline/sldPlusTlds.txt"
END LIST CONFIGURATION

Running pipeline:

$ mkdir /data/pipeline/error

/usr/local/sbin/pipeline  \
--site-config-file=/data/silk.conf \
--alert-log-file=/data/pipeline/alertLog.txt \
--aux-alert-file=/data/pipeline/auxLog.txt \
--ipfix \
--time-field-name=flowStartMilliseconds \
--configuration=/data/pipeline/whitelists.conf \
--incoming-directory=/data/pipeline/incoming/ \
--error-directory=/data/pipeline/error \
--log-destination=syslog

Start YAF

$ mkdir /var/log/yaf

$ export LTDL_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/lib/yaf

Example yaf command line for sniffing interface eth0:

/usr/local/bin/yaf
--in eth0 --live pcap \
--ipfix tcp \
--out localhost \
--log /var/log/yaf/yaf.log \
--verbose \
--silk \
--verbose \
--ipfix-port=18000 \
--applabel --max-payload 2048 \
--plugin-name=/usr/local/lib/yaf/dpacketplugin.so \
--plugin-opts="53"

DNS Baselining with Pipeline

Once pipeline has been running for 4-6 weeks, sufficient whitelists have been created and it is time to restart pipeline with a configuration file that will use the whitelists to compare incoming domains against and alert when new domains seen. The whitelists will also be updated with the new domains so that pipeline only alerts when a domain is seen for the first time ever or when it has not been seen for over 60 days.

FILTER newDomains
        dnsQName NOT IN LIST "/data/pipeline/domainList.txt"
        dnsQName NOT IN LIST newestDomains
END FILTER

INTERNAL FILTER newestDomains
        FILTER newDomains
        dnsQName newestDomains 60 DAYS
END INTERNAL FILTER

EVALUATION newDomains
        FILTER newDomains
        CHECK EVERYTHING PASSES
        END CHECK
        ALERT ALWAYS
        ALERT EVERYTHING
END EVALUATION

FILTER newDomainsOnlyFile
        dnsQName NOT IN LIST "/data/pipeline/domainList.txt"
END FILTER

EVALUATION newDomainsOnlyFile
        FILTER newDomainsOnlyFile
        CHECK EVERYTHING PASSES
        END CHECK
        ALERT ALWAYS
        ALERT EVERYTHING
END EVALUATION

FILTER newIPForDomains
        dnsQName IN LIST "/data/pipeline/domainList.txt"
        sourceIPv4Address dnsQName NOT IN LIST "/data/pipeline/domainIPPairs.txt"
        sourceIPv4Address dnsQName NOT IN LIST newestDomainIPPairs
END FILTER

INTERNAL FILTER newestDomainIPPairs
        FILTER newIPForDomains
        sourceIPv4Address dnsQName newestDomainIPPairs 60 DAYS
END INTERNAL FILTER

EVALUATION newIPForDomains
        FILTER newIPForDomains
        CHECK EVERYTHING PASSES
        END CHECK
        ALERT ALWAYS
        ALERT EVERYTHING
END EVALUATION

FILTER newIPForDomainsOnlyFile
        dnsQName IN LIST "/data/pipeline/domainList.txt"
        sourceIPv4Address dnsQName NOT IN LIST "/data/pipeline/domainIPPairs.txt"
END FILTER

EVALUATION newIPForDomainsOnlyFile
        FILTER newIPForDomainsOnlyFile
        CHECK EVERYTHING PASSES
        END CHECK
        ALERT ALWAYS
        ALERT EVERYTHING
END EVALUATION

FILTER newSlds
        DNS_SLD(dnsQName) NOT IN LIST "/data/pipeline/slds.txt"
        DNS_SLD(dnsQName) NOT IN LIST newestSlds
END FILTER

INTERNAL FILTER newestSlds
        FILTER newSlds
        DNS_SLD(dnsQName) newestSlds 60 DAYS
END INTERNAL FILTER

EVALUATION newSlds
        FILTER newSlds
        CHECK EVERYTHING PASSES
        END CHECK
        ALERT ALWAYS
        ALERT EVERYTHING
END EVALUATION

FILTER newSldsOnlyFile
        DNS_SLD(dnsQName) NOT IN LIST "/data/pipeline/slds.txt"
END FILTER

EVALUATION newSldsOnlyFile
        FILTER newSldsOnlyFile
        CHECK EVERYTHING PASSES
        END CHECK
        ALERT ALWAYS
        ALERT EVERYTHING
END EVALUATION

FILTER newSLDplusTLD
        DNS_SLD+TLD(dnsQName) NOT IN LIST "/data/pipeline/sldPlusTlds.txt"
        DNS_SLD+TLD(dnsQName) NOT IN LIST newestSLDplusTLD
END FILTER

INTERNAL FILTER newestSLDplusTLD
        FILTER newSLDplusTLD
        DNS_SLD+TLD(dnsQName) newestSLDplusTLD 60 DAYS
END INTERNAL FILTER

EVALUATION newSLDplusTLD
        FILTER newSLDplusTLD
        CHECK EVERYTHING PASSES
        END CHECK
        ALERT ALWAYS
        ALERT EVERYTHING
END EVALUATION

FILTER newSLDplusTLDOnlyFile
        DNS_SLD+TLD(dnsQName) NOT IN LIST "/data/pipeline/sldPlusTlds.txt"
END FILTER

EVALUATION newSLDplusTLDOnlyFile
        FILTER newSLDplusTLD
        CHECK EVERYTHING PASSES
        END CHECK
        ALERT ALWAYS
        ALERT EVERYTHING
END EVALUATION

Remove old alert files and restart pipeline:

$ rm /data/pipeline/alertLog.txt
$ rm /data/pipeline/auxLog.txt

/usr/local/sbin/pipeline  \
--site-config-file=/data/silk.conf \
--alert-log-file=/data/pipeline/alertLog.txt \
--aux-alert-file=/data/pipeline/auxLog.txt \
--ipfix \
--time-field-name=flowStartMilliseconds \
--configuration=/data/pipeline/live_alert.conf \
--incoming-directory=/data/pipeline/incoming/ \
--error-directory=/data/pipeline/error \
--log-destination=syslog

The data will look similar to:

2017-01-31 20:19:16|Evaluation|newDomains|1|2016-12-01 00:01:01|216.239.34.102|1|ns-gce-public2.googledomains.com.|
2017-01-31 20:19:16|Evaluation|newDomains|1|2016-12-01 00:01:01|216.239.38.102|1|ns-gce-public4.googledomains.com.|
2017-01-31 20:19:16|Evaluation|newDomains|1|2016-12-01 00:01:01|216.239.36.102|1|ns-gce-public3.googledomains.com.|
2017-01-31 20:19:16|Evaluation|newDomains|1|2016-12-01 00:01:01|216.239.32.102|1|ns-gce-public1.googledomains.com.|

pipeline will also allow you to filter out domains/SLDs/TLDs that are not of interest to you. That exercise will be left up to the reader.