NAME

pmapfilter - User-defined labels for IPs and protocol/port pairs

SYNOPSIS

  rwfilter --pmap-file=[MAPNAME:]FILENAME
        [--pmap-file=[MAPNAME:]FILENAME ...]
        [--pmap-src-MAPNAME=LABELS] [--pmap-dst-MAPNAME=LABELS]
        [--pmap-any-MAPNAME=LABELS] ...

  rwcut --pmap-file=[MAPNAME:]FILENAME
        [--pmap-file=[MAPNAME:]FILENAME ...]
        --fields=FIELDS [--pmap-column-width=NUM]

  rwgroup --pmap-file=[MAPNAME:]FILENAME
        [--pmap-file=[MAPNAME:]FILENAME ...]
        --id-fields=FIELDS

  rwsort --pmap-file=[MAPNAME:]FILENAME
        [--pmap-file=[MAPNAME:]FILENAME ...]
        --fields=FIELDS

  rwstats --pmap-file=[MAPNAME:]FILENAME
        [--pmap-file=[MAPNAME:]FILENAME ...]
        --fields=FIELDS [--pmap-column-width=NUM]

  rwuniq --pmap-file=[MAPNAME:]FILENAME
        [--pmap-file=[MAPNAME:]FILENAME ...]
        --fields=FIELDS [--pmap-column-width=NUM]

DESCRIPTION

Prefix maps provide a mapping from values on a SiLK Flow record to string labels. The binary prefix map file is created from textual input with rwpmapbuild. See the rwpmapbuild(1) manual page for the syntax of input file. This manual page describes how to use a prefix map file to augment the features of some commonly used SiLK applications.

A prefix map file maps either an IP address or a protocol/port pair to a label. The mode statement in the input to rwpmapbuild determines whether the prefix map file is a mapping for IPs or for protocol/port pairs. To see the mode of an existing prefix map, use rwpmapcat(1) and specify --output-type=type.

When using the prefix map file as described in this manual page, one typically uses the prefix map's map-name. The map-name statement in the input to rwpmapbuild allows one to assign the map-name when creating the prefix map. To see the map-name of an existing prefix map, use rwpmapcat --output-type=mapname. To assign a map-name when loading a prefix map file, use the --pmap-file switch and specify the map-name you want to use, a colon, and the file name. A map-name provided to the --pmap-file switch overrides the map-name in the file (if one exists).

When using a prefix map in rwfilter(1), the map-name is combined with the prefix --pmap-src-, --pmap-dst-, or --pmap-any- to create the partitioning switches. When using the prefix map to create fields in rwcut(1), rwgroup(1), rwsort(1), rwstats(1), and rwuniq(1), the map-name must be combined with the prefix src- or dst- to create the field names.

The applications support using multiple prefix map files in a single invocation. When using multiple prefix map files, each file must have a unique map-name (or be assigned a unique map-name on the command line).

When a prefix map file does not contain a map-name and no map-name is provided on the command line, SiLK processes the prefix map in legacy mode. When in legacy mode, only one prefix map file may be used. See the "LEGACY" section for details.

Three types of prefix map files are currently implemented:

proto-port

Maps a protocol/port pair to a label.

IPv4-address

Maps an IPv4 address to a label. When used with IPv6 addresses, an IPv6 address in the ::ffff:0:0/96 prefix is converted to IPv4 and mapped to the label. Any other IPv6 address is mapped to the label UNKNOWN.

IPv6-address

Maps an IPv6 address to a label. When used with an IPv4 address, the IPv4 address is converted to IPv6, mapping the IPv4 address into the ::ffff:0:0/96 prefix.

For more information on constructing prefix map files, see the rwpmapbuild(1) documentation. To view the contents, type, or map-name of a prefix map file, use rwpmapcat(1). To map textual input to the labels in a prefix map, use rwpmaplookup(1).

OPTIONS

The --pmap-file switch is used to load the prefix map into the application. Use of the prefix map varies by application.

To use a prefix map within a supported application, one or more --pmap-file switches are required. Multiple --pmap-file switches are allowed as long as each prefix map is associated with a unique map-name. The switch has two forms:

--pmap-file=MAPNAME:FILENAME

FILENAME refers to a prefix map file generated using rwpmapbuild. MAPNAME is a name that will be used to refer to the fields or options specific to that prefix map.

--pmap-file=FILENAME

When a MAPNAME is not specified explicitly as part of the argument, the prefix map file is checked to determine if a map-name was set when the prefix map was created (see rwpmapbuild). If so, that map-name is used. If not, the prefix map is processed in legacy mode for backward compatibility. See "LEGACY" below for more information.

rwfilter Switches

When using the prefix map in rwfilter(1), the map-name is combined with the prefix --pmap-src-, --pmap-dst-, or --pmap-any- to create the partitioning switches; that is, the switch name depends in part on the map-name of the prefix map.

--pmap-src-MAPNAME=LABELS

If the prefix map associated with MAPNAME is an IP prefix map, this matches records with a source address that maps to a label contained in the list of labels in LABELS.

If the prefix map associated with MAPNAME is a proto-port prefix map, this matches records with a protocol and source port combination that maps to a label contained in the list of labels in LABELS.

--pmap-dst-MAPNAME=LABELS

Similar to --pmap-src-MAPNAME, but uses the destination IP or the protocol and destination port.

--pmap-any-MAPNAME=LABELS

If the prefix map associated with MAPNAME is an IP prefix map, this matches records with a source or destination address that maps to a label contained in the list of labels in LABELS.

If the prefix map associated with MAPNAME is a proto-port prefix map, this matches records with a protocol and a source or destination port combination that maps to a label contained in the list of labels in LABELS.

rwcut, rwgroup, rwsort, rwstats, and rwuniq Switches

When using the prefix map to create fields in rwcut(1), rwgroup(1), rwsort(1), rwstats(1), and rwuniq(1), the map-name must be combined with the prefix src- or dst- to create the field names. The field names depend in part on the map-name of the prefix map.

--fields=FIELDS

FIELDS refers to a list of fields to use for the operation. Each prefix map associated with MAPNAME creates two additional fields, src-MAPNAME and dst-MAPNAME, available for display, sorting, and counting using the rwcut, rwgroup, rwsort, rwstats, and rwuniq tools.

src-MAPNAME

The value for the source from the prefix map file associated with MAPNAME. For an IP-based prefix map file, this corresponds to the source IP. For a proto-port prefix map, it is the protocol/source-port.

dst-MAPNAME

As src-MAPNAME for the destination IP address or protocol/destination-port. It is possible to encode type and code in a proto-port prefix map, but it will only work when used for the protocol/destination-port.

--pmap-column-width=NUM

Set the maximum number of characters to use when displaying the textual value of any prefix map field in rwcut, rwstats, and rwuniq to NUM. This switch must precede the --fields switch. This switch is useful for prefix map files that have very long dictionary values.

LEGACY

When a prefix map file does not contain a map-name and no map-name is specified in the --pmap-file argument, SiLK processes the prefix map as it did prior to SiLK 2.0, which is called legacy mode. When in legacy mode, only one prefix map file may be used by the application. Legacy mode is deprecated, but it is maintained for backwards compatibility.

Legacy Switches

When a prefix map is loaded into rwfilter in legacy mode, the following switches are defined:

--pmap-saddress=LABELS

Match records with a source IP address that maps to a label contained in the list of labels in LABELS. Only works with IP prefix maps.

--pmap-daddress=LABELS

As --pmap-saddress for the destination IP.

--pmap-any-address=LABELS

Match records with a source or destination IP address that maps to a label contained in the list of labels in LABELS. Only works with IP prefix maps.

--pmap-sport-proto=LABELS

Match records with a protocol and source port combination that maps to a label contained in the list of labels in LABELS. Only works with proto-port prefix maps.

--pmap-dport-proto=LABELS

As --pmap-saddress for the protocol and destination port.

--pmap-any-port-proto=LABELS

Match records with a protocol and a source or destination port combination that maps to a label contained in the list of labels in LABELS. Only works with proto-port prefix maps.

Legacy Fields

When a prefix map is loaded into rwcut, rwgroup, rwsort, rwstats, or rwuniq in legacy mode, the following fields are made available to the --fields switch:

sval

The value from the prefix map file for the source. For an IP-based prefix map file, this corresponds to the source IP. For a proto-port prefix map, it is the protocol/source-port.

dval

As sval for the destination IP address or protocol/destination-port.

EXAMPLES

The following examples explicitly specify the map name on the command line, ensuring the examples work any prefix map file. The examples use two prefix map files:

carnegiemellon.pmap

Maps the internal IP space of Carnegie Mellon to labels specifying the department that has been assigned that IP space. (An IPv4 prefix map provides a label for every IPv4 address; in this case, any IP outside of Carnegie Mellon's IP space is given the label external.)

service.pmap

Maps protocol/ports pairs to well-known services associated with those pairs (e.g., based the file /etc/protocols and /etc/services). For example, 80/tcp is labeled TCP/HTTP, 25/tcp is TCP/SMTP, ephemeral ports in protocol 6 are TCP, protocol 1 is ICMP, etc.

To find today's incoming flow records going to "FineArts":

 $ rwfilter --type=in,inweb --pmap-file=CMU:carnegiemellon.pmap \
         --pmap-dst-CMU="FineArts" --pass=fine-arts-in.rwf

To find today's outgoing flow records coming from "ChemE":

 $ rwfilter --type=out,outweb --pmap-file=CMU:carnegiemellon.pmap \
         --pmap-src-CMU="ChemE" --pass=cheme-out.rwf

To find today's internal traffic from "FineArts" to "ChemE":

 $ rwfilter --type=int2int --pmap-file=CMU:carnegiemellon.pmap \
         --pmap-src-CMU="FineArts" --pmap-dst-CMU="ChemE"
         --pass=finearts-to-cheme.rwf

To find the reverse traffic:

 $ rwfilter --type=int2int --pmap-file=CMU:carnegiemellon.pmap \
         --pmap-src-CMU="ChemE" --pmap-dst-CMU="FineArts"
         --pass=cheme-to-finearts.rwf

To find today's internal traffic that started or ended at "FineArts" and "ChemE" (this will find traffic between them, as well as traffic they had with any other university department):

 $ rwfilter --type=int2int --pmap-file=CMU:carnegiemellon.pmap \
         --pmap-any-CMU="ChemE,FineArts"
         --pass=cheme-finearts.rwf

Using the service.pmap file with rwcut to print the label for the protocol/port pairs:

 $ rwcut --pmap-file=service:service.pmap  \
        --fields=protocol,dport,dst-service,sport,src-service \
        flow-records.rwf
 pro|dPort|dst-service|sPort|src-service|
  17|   53|    UDP/DNS|29617|        UDP|
  17|29617|        UDP|   53|    UDP/DNS|
   6|   22|    TCP/SSH|29618|        TCP|
   6|29618|        TCP|   22|    TCP/SSH|
   1|  771|       ICMP|    0|       ICMP|
  17|   67|   UDP/DHCP|   68|   UDP/DHCP|
   6|  443|  TCP/HTTPS|28816|        TCP|
   6|29897|        TCP|   25|   TCP/SMTP|
   6|29222|        TCP|   80|   TCP/HTTP|
  17|29361|        UDP|   53|    UDP/DNS|

Using the service.pmap file with rwuniq:

 $ rwuniq --pmap-file=serv:service.pmap --fields=dst-serv \
        --values=bytes flow-records.rwf
    dst-serv|               Bytes|
     TCP/SSH|          3443906999|
    TCP/SMTP|           780000305|
         TCP|        114397570896|
   TCP/HTTPS|           387741258|
    TCP/HTTP|          1526975653|
     UDP/NTP|             1176632|
         UDP|            14404581|
    UDP/DHCP|             5121392|
     UDP/DNS|             3797474|
        ICMP|            10695328|

Using the service.pmap file with rwstats:

 $ rwstats --pmap-file=srvc:service.pmap --fields=dst-srvc \
        --values=bytes --count=5 flow-records.rwf
 INPUT: 501876 Records for 10 Bins and 120571390518 Total Bytes
 OUTPUT: Top 5 Bins by Bytes
    dst-srvc|               Bytes|    %Bytes|   cumul_%|
         TCP|        114397570896| 94.879532| 94.879532|
     TCP/SSH|          3443906999|  2.856322| 97.735854|
    TCP/HTTP|          1526975653|  1.266449| 99.002303|
    TCP/SMTP|           780000305|  0.646920| 99.649223|
   TCP/HTTPS|           387741258|  0.321586| 99.970809|

Using rwsort with two prefix maps, where the records are first sorted by the originating department and then by the service they are requesting:

 $ rwsort --pmap-file=service:service.pmap   \
         --pmap-file=cmu:carnegiemellon.pmap \
         --fields=src-cmu,dst-service flow-records.rwf

To see the partitioning switches that a prefix map adds to rwfilter, load the prefix map file prior to specifying the --help switch.

 $ rwfilter --pmap-file=carnegiemellon.pmap --help \
         | sed -n '/^--pmap-/p'

To see the fields that a prefix map file adds to rwcut, rwgroup, rwsort, rwstats, or rwuniq, load the prefix map file prior to specifying --help, and then view the description of the --fields switch.

 $ rwsort --pmap-file=service.pmap --help  \
        | sed -n '/^--fields/,/^--/p'

SEE ALSO

rwcut(1), rwfilter(1), rwgroup(1), rwpmapbuild(1), rwpmapcat(1), rwpmaplookup(1), rwsort(1), rwstats(1), rwuniq(1), silk(7)